A product logo is a logo made specifically for a product. The designer has to make sure to incorporate various key elements of the product and the company logo into the product logo. Some companies have many different products that they are selling in the market but all of them don't have the company logo on them. Take the example of cosmetic companies. They will have a variety of creams and cosmetics and they will all have different packaging and different designs and logos and yet, they come from the same company. The Coca Cola company is a great example that can be used here. Now, most people will think that the Coca Cola company only produces the coca cola soft drink but that's not true. The coca cola company actually produces Fanta, Sprite, Simply Orange and so on. These soft drinks and juices are all products of the same company and yet they do not carry the company logo but have their own product logos that are distinct from each other.
Product logos come in where company logos can't. Putting a company logo on all the products might make it seem as if the company is not putting in any effort and all the products might look the same, just with different names. Product logos make the items seem fancier and the customers can tell that they are differently made and packaged. Let's take an example of shampoo. If there were a company, suppose ABC, and they were releasing a new line of shampoos for men and women. There were a variety of shampoos made with different products and they were also made with different reasons; either for dry hair, long hair, dandruff, etc. But the company ABC, put the same packaging on all the shampoos with the company logo and just the difference of the reasons and the ingredients. Now, the customers don't really have the time to sit and read the ingredients on the back of the bottle and even if they read the different purposes of the shampoos, they will still be skeptical and think that the company is conning them by selling the same shampoo using different purposes and ingredients. And most of the customers won't even bother to read the purposes and walk away. This is why the products should have different product logos depending upon the audience they want to target. If it's a ladies shampoo, it'll be decorated with bright colors and swirls, if it's a man's shampoo, it'll have dark colors and if it's a kid's shampoo, it'll have animated characters. This is how a company can use product logos and designs to attract the right audience all the while belonging to the same company.
Product logos can be a risky investment but if they are done right, they can be good for you. But if the product logos are done all wrong, it can cause a huge loss for you and your company. The designer, when designing a product logo, should keep in mind that a product logo is not a company logo. It is made solely for the product and not the company. It needs to highlight the key features of the product and also incorporate only as much things from the company logo, as is needed to show that this is a product of that company.
Sometimes, designers make the mistake of using too many colors and elements at once, which makes the people confused as to what message they are trying to portray. Some designers incorporate the company logo too much into the product logo and it becomes messy. The product logo only focuses on the smaller audience whereas a company logo works large-scale. Basically, the job of the product logo is to bring the customer's attention to the product and its key points but if it fails to achieve that, it fails as a product logo.
It is an understood fact that the designer will design the product logo as well. When a designer researches the client's business and learns more about the product that he is supposed to design a product logo for, it always pays off. The designer will have a more clear idea on what to design and how after doing his homework. If the designer is stuck, he can always take inspiration from the internet and take a break and then start again. He has to be careful while designing since this is for a specific audience unlike with a corporate logo and it needs to target the customers right away.
A corporate logo represents the whole company or business. Whereas a product logo represents the specific product that it has been designed for. A corporate logo is the basic logo, or you can say, a canvas, for creating other logos. The corporate logo is present everywhere on marketing materials and stationary and more. Product logo will only be present on the specific products. A corporate logo will be used to represent the company everywhere but a product logo Design will only be used to represent that specific product.